Mom Nutrition in Pregnancy

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Nutrition during pregnancy

Nutrition is an important issue for pregnant women. Expectant mothers think that they cannot feed properly and balancedly for the development of their baby. However, these worries are often unnecessary. Because nausea and vomiting and loss of appetite can naturally prevent weight gain in the first months.

There is no scientific validity to giving diets to pregnant women and forcing them to eat foods they do not want. In some special cases, such diets can only be prepared by specialist dietitians, taking into account the patient's condition, in line with the doctor's recommendations and individually.

The important thing in pregnancy nutrition is that the mother has adequate nutrition before pregnancy and that her nutrient stores are sufficient. Because the baby grows and feeds by choosing what he needs from the mother's food reserves and what he consumes during pregnancy.

The ideal weight that pregnant women will gain during pregnancy varies depending on their starting weight. Those with a high initial body mass index can gain less weight, and those with a low body mass index can gain a little more weight. A normal weight mother should take an additional 20 g per day during pregnancy. protein, 15-20 mg. iron, 500mg. calcium and an average of 300 calories of energy is sufficient.

Recommended Foods and Measures to be Consumed During Pregnancy

The most important point that pregnant women should pay attention to is that they should have a balanced diet with foods from different food groups. Nutrients perform various tasks in our body. Food groups are formed from foods that perform the same tasks. You can choose your favorite food from the same group.

MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS 2 glasses of milk or 2 bowls of yoghurt or 4 glasses of ayran.
MEAT, EGG, LEGUMES 1 egg, 1 portion of meat, fish, chicken, 1 portion of legumes.
FRESH VEGETABLES AND FRUITS 2 servings of cooked fresh vegetables, 3 servings of raw fresh vegetables, 4-5 medium-sized fruits
GRAINS 6-8 Thin slices of bread, 1 portion of rice or pasta, 1 portion of soup.
OILS 3-4 tablespoons of oil

Sample Pregnancy Nutrition Menu

MORNING


1 egg,
1 slice of cheese
5 olives or hazelnuts,
1 slice of bread,
1 tomato, 1 cucumber, parsley, green pepper, dill, etc.
DREAM MEAL

1 fruit,
1 glass of buttermilk.

NOON

1 portion of legumes with meat,
1 portion of rice or pasta,
1 glass of buttermilk or,
1 bowl of yogurt
1 portion of salad
1 medium slice of bread.

DREAM MEAL

1 slice of bread,
1 slice of cheese
Tomatoes and cucumbers,
1 fruit 1 glass of buttermilk.

EVENING

1 portion of meat, fish, chicken (with vegetables),
1 portion of vegetable dish with olive oil,
1 glass of buttermilk,
1 portion of salad, 1 medium slice of bread.
NIGHT

1 portion of fruit, half a tea glass of milk.

Tips for Proper Nutrition

Make sure the food you buy is fresh. Take care to consume fresh and natural ingredients instead of canned foods and foods stored with additives.

Eat little and often. Neither stay hungry for a long time, nor fill your stomach when you eat.
Give importance to “variety” in the foods you eat. In this way, you will be able to get many vitamins and minerals.
Instead of high-fat, sweet and caloric foods, turn to foods rich in protein and fiber and low in fat. Remember that obesity during pregnancy can cause a lot of problems.
If you have gestational diabetes mellitus, you may need to restrict calories as recommended by your dietitian.
Two substances that should be taken externally as tablets during pregnancy are folic acid and iron. In a pregnant woman who can eat a balanced diet, external vitamin or mineral intake is unnecessary.
There are many drugs on the market called "multivitamins" that contain many vitamins and minerals. These are also prescribed by most physicians.

Scientific studies in recent years have shown that vitamins A, C, E, and trace elements such as magnesium, calcium, zinc, selenium, copper, fluorine, which are taken externally as pills during pregnancy, do not have any positive effects on pregnancy in those who are fed regularly.

Although synthetic multivitamin tablets can be given as a supplement to pregnant women who cannot have a balanced diet, they will never replace natural foods.

Pay attention to the rules of cleanliness in feeding. Wash your hands properly before meals. Wash vegetables and fruits for a long time before consuming them. If you have a cat or dog at home, do not neglect their vaccinations. Avoid raw or undercooked meat and meat products (such as sausage, salami, sausage, raw meatballs).
Never neglect water in your diet. Drink at least 8-10 glasses of water a day. In summer, this amount can be increased up to 15 glasses. Especially if you have constipation in the following months, you can prevent this problem by drinking plenty of water, consuming fruits that are eaten with the peel, including vegetables and salad in every meal, and walking.
Drinking 1-2 glasses of milk a day is to replace the calcium losses that occur during pregnancy. If you cannot drink milk, consume yogurt or ayran. Make sure that milk and dairy products are pasteurized.
Use iodized salt in meals. If you have high blood pressure (hypertension), cook food with less salt.
To protect yourself from nausea and vomiting, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy, choose solid, dry and non-fat foods during this period. Stay away from kitchen fragrances and heavy perfumes. A slice of cheese and one or two grissini can relieve nausea, which usually starts when you get out of bed in the morning. Remember to eat little and often.
Avoid fastfoods, packaged and extended shelf-life foods.
Let's take a look at the nutrients that should be consumed during pregnancy.

PROTEINS

In order to meet the increased protein requirement during pregnancy, protein-rich foods such as red and white meat, milk and dairy products, eggs, fish, legumes (beans, lentils, kidney beans…) are recommended. Proteins are divided into animal and vegetable proteins. Vegetable and animal proteins should be consumed in equal proportions in diets.

CALCIUM

Twice the amount of calcium you normally need is required during pregnancy. Because during pregnancy, there is a constant loss of calcium from the bones. Foods rich in calcium are cheese, milk, yogurt and green leafy vegetables. In order to be protected from diseases such as Brucella, typhoid and tuberculosis, take care that the cheese and milk you consume are hygienic and well pasteurized.

IRON

It is important to consume "blood builder", that is, iron-rich foods, and to use iron drugs, especially after 3-4 months. Because, especially after these months, anemia (anemia) may occur due to iron deficiency. The only preparation that pregnant women should take apart from food is iron.

Since nausea, vomiting and stomach complaints, which are common in the first months of pregnancy, may increase, it is recommended to start iron treatment after the third month.

Iron deficiency in pregnant women can cause symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath, sleepiness, and palpitations, as well as increase the risk of complications related to pregnancy such as premature birth, failure of the baby to develop in the uterus, stillbirth and miscarriage. In addition, an advanced bloodless pregnant suffers from childbirth and postpartum period.

In order to minimize iron deficiency, blood builder; Foods such as red meat, eggs and legumes, molasses, raisins should be consumed. In addition, fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C will increase iron absorption from the intestines.

Some people may not be able to use iron pills throughout their pregnancy due to stomach complaints. In these individuals, potable (liquid) iron solutions can be used. Sometimes iron can be given to patients by intravenous or intramuscular administration.

If a person still has low hematocrit and hemoglobin values despite intensive iron treatments, anemia other than iron deficiency anemia or intestinal absorption disorders (malabsorption syndromes) should be sought.

C VITAMIN

Vitamin C is a necessary vitamin for the absorption of iron from the intestines, for increasing the immune resistance of the body against disease-causing microorganisms, and for many biochemical processes in our metabolism. Vitamin C requirement during pregnancy increased due to the acceleration of metabolism; However, it is not recommended to take vitamins in pill form in pregnant women who are fed regularly.

Vitamin C is found in many fresh fruits and vegetables such as oranges, lemons, red and green peppers, tomatoes, strawberries, grapefruit, cauliflower and cabbage. Since it is not stored in the body, a certain amount should be taken every day.

Most of the vitamin C is lost in foods that are stored and cooked for a long time. You should consume the foods while they are fresh, and eat the well-washed vegetables raw or boiled a little. In addition, pregnant women waiting for a long time, non-natural, canned and similar foods are not recommended.

FOLIC ACID

For the development of the baby's central nervous system, it is important to take "vitamin B9", that is, folic acid, especially from the first weeks of pregnancy. Since it is not stored in the body and more than normal is needed during pregnancy, it should be taken every day.

Fresh green vegetables are a source of folic acid, but prolonged cooking and long-term storage reduce its amount in foods. It is most commonly found in spinach, peanuts, hazelnuts, cauliflower and wholemeal bread. It is not clear whether folic acid should be taken with food, medicine or enriched foods.

Women who have previously been found to have folic acid deficiency or who have given birth to a baby with neural tube defect anomaly should start taking folic acid at least 3 months before they plan to become pregnant.

FIBER FOODS (Fiber Foods)

Fibrous (pulp) foods, which should form a large part of your daily diet, are very useful in preventing constipation and intestinal laziness, which are common during pregnancy.

Generally, all vegetables and fruits are rich in fiber. You can eat a lot every day. Wholegrain foods also contain fiber, but they should not be consumed excessively as they reduce the absorption of some other nutrients from the intestines.

Fibrous foods are most commonly found in fruits and vegetables such as whole-grain breads, kidney beans, apricots, raisins, peas, leeks, and raspberries.

Fluid Intake During Pregnancy
Drinking plenty of water and fluids during pregnancy is extremely beneficial for you and your pregnancy.

Especially drinking plenty of water can be protective or therapeutic in many cases such as urinary tract infection, oligohydramnios (the baby's amniotic fluid is less than normal), preterm labor, respiratory tract infections, constipation and diarrhea.

What Pregnant Women Should Avoid
Tea, coffee, cola drinks and cocoa are not recommended during pregnancy. While tea causes iron deficiency with the 'theine' it contains, it is not recommended because other substances contain 'caffeine' and may have a negative effect on the baby. Drinking mineral water (soda) has no negative effects.

Herbal teas such as mint, lemon, sage, linden, rosehip, chamomile, which are completely natural and do not contain any additives, can also be drunk during pregnancy.

Alcohol is definitely harmful when used during pregnancy, as it is defined as 'fetal alcohol syndrome' in the baby and causes problems manifested by mental retardation and a number of structural abnormalities.

It is also necessary to limit unnecessary calorie consumption during pregnancy. It should not be forgotten that excessive weight gain increases problems such as gestational diabetes, hypertension, difficulty in childbirth, large baby complications and low back pain. Therefore, it is necessary to avoid sugary foods and beverages, such as cakes, biscuits, jams and soft drinks, as much as possible. In addition, boiled foods should be preferred instead of oily fried foods.

It is also appropriate to avoid excessive salt consumption.

In conclusion; It is not right to eat too much and unbalanced nutrition during pregnancy so that the baby can feed well, and it is not right to eat less of healthy foods in order to easily reach the old appearance after birth.

The basic principle is through proper and balanced nutrition.
 
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