Baby Birthmarks and Skin Diseases in Newborns


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18 May 2022
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Birthmarks are spots that occur on the skin of babies that have existed since the mother's womb. These spots are usually harmless and do not affect the baby's vital functions. With imaging devices, birthmarks can be noticed by the doctor before birth. Birthmarks can occur anywhere on a baby's face or body. These spots can come in different colors, sizes, appearances, and shapes, and are sometimes permanent and tend to grow over time.

Some spots disappear completely. Most birthmarks are harmless, but some indicate an underlying medical condition. Birthmarks can be removed with different methods when your doctor deems it necessary. There are many misconceptions among the public about why birthmarks occur. Some of these misconceptions are; It can be listed as food eaten without permission during pregnancy or untreated wishes of expectant mothers. Birthmarks are not caused by anything that expectant mothers do or don't do. However, it is not known exactly why birthmarks occur. Some are genetic, some are not. Birthmarks can occur due to vascular (vascular) or pigment density (pigmented) causes and are classified according to their formation.
What are vascular birthmarks?
These types of birthmarks occur when blood vessels in the skin develop differently than they should for an unknown reason. For example, there may be too many blood vessels clustered in an area, or one or more blood vessels may be larger than they should be.

What are the types of vascular birthmarks?

Salmon spots: These red or pink spots usually appear between the eyes, on the eyelids, or on the back of the neck. In some cultures, when angel kisses are seen on the neck and face, these spots are called stork bites. It is caused by the clumping or enlargement of small blood vessels under the skin. Salmon spots sometimes occur spontaneously and do not require medical attention.

Hemangiomas: Also known as strawberry spots, hemangiomas can appear pink, blue, or bright red. They are usually found on the arms, legs, head and neck. Hemangiomas may start small and flat. Sometimes hemangiomas grow rapidly in the first few months of a baby's life. Your doctor may want to treat some hemangiomas in your baby if necessary. These treatments are usually necessary for hemangiomas that are growing rapidly and are located in areas that may affect the baby's development. Other than that, many hemangiomas disappear completely by puberty. Children with multiple hemangiomas on their skin should also be checked for internal hemangiomas.

Nevus flammeus: Nevus flammeus is caused by the abnormal development of small blood vessels under the skin. They can occur anywhere on the body, but are usually found on the face and neck. Nevus flammeus may begin as pink or red and turn dark red or purple. They do not fade over time and may darken if left untreated. The skin may also be very dry, thick, or rough in texture. Nevus flammeus on the eyelids may require medical treatment or follow-up. Rarely, such birthmarks may be associated with genetic conditions.

What are pigment birthmarks?

Pigment is a chemical that occurs naturally in the skin and gives the skin its natural color. Sometimes a large number of pigment cells appear in one area of the skin. Such conditions can create pigmented birthmarks.

What are the types of pigment birthmarks?

Moles: Also called congenital nevi, moles can be pink, light brown or black in color. Moles may be of different size or may be flush with the skin or be more raised. Moles are usually round. It can be seen on the face or any part of the body. Some moles disappear on their own, while others are permanent. Regardless of age, it's important to keep track of the change in mole size and shape because a change in size can sometimes be linked to skin cancer.

Café au lait spots: These birthmarks are more oval in shape. Because they are usually pale brown in color, they are called Café au lait spots, which means "coffee with milk" in French. If the skin color is dark, the Cafe au lait stops will also be darker. This birthmark can appear at any time, sometimes at birth, sometimes long after birth and even into early childhood. It can grow in size, but usually fades over time. Some children may have more than one coffee break with milk. If your child has many stops, it is useful to consult a doctor. This can be a symptom of a rare medical condition called neurofibromatosis.

Mongolian spots: They are bluish-gray spots that are not raised, mostly seen in dark-skinned people. These harmless spots can be mistaken for bruising. Mongolian spots typically appear on the lower back and buttocks. These spots usually disappear completely by the age of four. About 9 out of 10 children of black, oriental or Indian descent have these spots. These misidentified spots are also common in infants whose ancestors came from the Mediterranean. But it is rare in children with blond hair and blue eyes. Although most of them are present at birth and disappear within the first year, they sometimes continue to be seen later and even into adulthood.

How Are Birthmarks and Skin Diseases Treated?

Your doctor may recommend several treatments. The simplest is compression and massage and this will accelerate the disappearance of the point. Corticosteroid therapy, surgery, laser therapy, cryotherapy, and curing agents may be required to treat strawberry-colored hemangiomas. Many experts believe that 0.1% of these birthmarks require surgical intervention. Most birthmarks are harmless and do not require treatment. Types of birthmarks such as hemangiomas, Mongolian spots, and salmon spots usually go away on their own. Some birthmarks can cause discomfort due to their appearance. Other birthmarks, such as hemangiomas or moles, are risk factors for certain medical conditions, such as skin cancer. These birthmarks should be monitored by a dermatologist. Surgical interventions for birthmarks do not require hospitalization. Birthmark treatments can be done in an outpatient setting or in a dermatologist's office.

What are skin diseases in newborn babies?

In a term newborn, the skin and skin connections are fully developed. It completely preserves the skin's protective barrier property. However, the dermis thickness is less than in adults. Collagen fibers are smaller and elastic fibers are not fully developed. Since the sweat glands are not fully developed, they cannot fully fulfill their task of maintaining body temperature. Therefore, newborn babies should be protected from the cold. During the newborn period, an oily substance called sebum is secreted from the skin. This substance decreases after the first month and reaches equilibrium after 1 year. Premature babies have thin skin. For this reason, the protective feature of the skin is gained only 2-3 weeks after birth. Premature babies have thin skin. Premature babies have high water and heat loss through the skin. There are some skin diseases that occur in newborn babies.

Skin peeling in newborn babies

In the first week of life, peeling occurs in the form of a thin flaking on the skin. It is a purely physiological state. Very rarely, this peeling can be very noticeable in normal children.

Punctuation (kutis marmaratus)

Especially as a result of exposure to cold environment, dark pink fluctuations occur on the skin of newborn babies and this causes a marble appearance on the skin. It is an innocent state that passes by itself. However, it may take a long time in babies with congenital hypothyroidism.

Toxic erythema of the newborn baby

They appear 1-2 days after birth and appear as needle-sized, white or yellowish, water-filled swellings. It will heal on its own in a few days. It can be seen on the face and the whole body.


It is common in newborn babies and breastfed babies. It occurs as a result of blockage of the ducts of the sweat glands. In addition to the immaturity of the sweat glands, the very hot environment, thick clothes and feverish diseases trigger the formation of miliaria. Milaria in infants can take three forms.

Many pinhead-sized red dots

Small water-filled formations on these red dots
Inflamed form of water-filled formations
Rashes are most common in the neck and chest area. It can spread throughout the body. They do not cause any complaints. No medication needed. It may be enough to adjust the ambient temperature and adjust the thickness of your baby's clothing. It is beneficial to take a bath frequently.

newborn acne

Approximately 20% of newborn babies may experience acne in the first month of life, with rashes spreading on the cheeks and forehead, and rarely on the chest and back. Neonatal acne can be attributed to hyperactive androgenic hormones passed from the mother or to the adrenal glands. If the mother uses lithium or hydantoin, newborn acne may occur in the baby. Acne regresses on its own within a few months. Acne that occurs 3 to 6 months after the newborn period is infantile acne.

seborrheic dermatitis

It is usually seen in areas with dense sebaceous glands. It is characterized by crusting and peeling. The reason is unknown. It is common on the scalp and behind the ears. It begins in the first months of life and disappears in the 4th and 5th months. In severe forms, the scales on the skin thicken and accumulate, forming yellow lumps. It could be a bad smell. It could be a bad smell. Especially in chubby babies, there may be lesions in the skin folds, armpits, behind the ears and on the neck.