Baby Birthmarks and Skin Diseases of Newborns

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Birthmarks are spots on the skin of babies that have existed since the mother womb. These spots are usually harmless and do not affect the vital functions of the baby. Birthmarks with imaging devices can be noticed by the doctor before birth. Birthmarks can occur anywhere on the baby’s face or body. These spots can be of different color, size, appearance and shape, and are sometimes permanent and may tend to grow over time.

Some spots disappear completely. Most birthmarks are harmless, but some show an underlying medical condition. When your doctor deems it necessary, birthmarks can be removed with different methods. There are many misconceptions about why birthmarks occur among the public. Some of these false beliefs are; It can be listed as food eaten without permission while pregnant or uncured cravings of expectant mother. Birthmarks do not consist of anything that pregnant mothers do or do not do. However, it is not known exactly why birthmarks occur. Some are genetically sourced, while others are not. Birthmarks can occur due to vascular (vascular) or pigment density (pigmented) causes and are classified according to their formation.



What are vascular birthmarks?
Birthmarks of this type appear when the blood vessels in the skin develop differently than they should be for an unknown reason. For example, there may be too many blood vessels clustered in one area, or one or more blood vessels may be larger than they should be.

What are the types of vascular birthmarks?
Salmon spots: These red or pink spots usually appear in the area between the eyes, on the eyelids, or behind the neck. In some cultures, these spots are called stork bites when observed on the nape and angel kisses on the face. It is caused by clumps or enlargement of small blood vessels under the skin. Salmon spots sometimes spontaneously and do not require medical attention.

Hemangiomas: Hemangiomas, also known as strawberry spots among the people, may appear in pink, blue or bright red color. They are usually found in the arms, legs, head and neck. Hemangiomas can start in a small size and flat. Sometimes hemangiomas grow rapidly in the first few months of a baby’s life. Your doctor may want to treat some hemangiomas in your baby if necessary. These treatments are usually required for hemangiomas that are growing fast and are in areas that can affect the baby's development. Apart from this, many hemangiomas disappear completely until puberty. Children with multiple hemangiomas on their skin should also be checked for internal hemangiomas.

Nevus flammeus: Nevus flammeus are caused by abnormal development of small blood vessels under the skin. They can occur anywhere on the body, but are usually found on the face and neck. Nevus flammeus can start in pink or red and turn dark red or purple. They do not fade over time and may darken if left untreated. The skin can also be very dry, thick or rough texture. Nevus flammeus on the eyelids may require medical treatment or follow-up. Rarely, such birthmarks may be associated with genetic conditions.

What are pigment birthmarks?
Pigment is a chemical that occurs naturally on the skin and gives the skin its natural color. Sometimes a large amount of pigment cells appear in one area on the skin. Such situations can create pigmented birthmarks.

What are types of pigment birthmarks?
Moles: Moles, also called congenital nevi, can be in pink, light brown or black. Moles can be of different size, or can be flush with the skin or more fluffy. Moles are usually round. It can be observed on the face or anywhere on the body. Some moles disappear on their own, and some are permanent for life. Regardless of age, it is important to keep track of the change in size and shape of the mole because the change in one size can sometimes be linked to skin cancer.

Café au lait spots: These birthmarks are formed more ovally. They are often called Café au lait spots, which means “milk coffee” in French because they are pale brown in color. If the skin color is dark, the Cafe au lait stops that will be formed will also be darker. This birthmark can occur at any time, sometimes at birth, sometimes long after birth, or even until early childhood. It can grow in size, but it often fades over time. Some children may have more than one coffee stops with milk. If your child has many stops, it is useful to consult a doctor. This may be a sign of a rare medical condition called neurofibromatosis.



Mongolian spots: They are non-fluffy, bluish gray spots that are mostly observed in people with darker skin. These harmless spots can be confused with bruising. Mongolian spots typically appear on the lower back and hips. Usually until the age of four, these spots disappear completely. 9 out of 10 children of black, eastern or indian origin have these spots. These misidentified spots are also common in babies whose ancestors are from the Mediterranean. However, it is rare in children with blond hair and blue eyes. Although it is seen in most births and disappears in the first year, it continues to be seen sometimes after and even in adulthood.

How are Birthmarks and Skin Diseases Treated?
Your doctor may recommend several treatments. The simplest are compression and massage, and this will speed up the disappearance of the spot. Corticosteroid therapy, surgery, laser therapy, cryotherapy and curing agents may be required to treat strawberry-colored hemangiomas. Many experts think that 0.1% of these birthmarks require surgical intervention. Most birthmarks are harmless and do not require treatment. Types of birthmarks, such as hemangiomas, Mongolian spots, and salmon spots, often pass by themselves. Some birthmarks can cause discomfort due to their appearance. Other birthmarks, such as hemangioma or mole, are risk factors for some medical conditions, such as skin cancer. These birthmarks should be monitored by a dermatologist. Surgical interventions for birthmarks do not require hospitalization. Birthmark treatments can be done in an outpatient setting or in a dermatologist’s office.

What are the skin diseases in newborn babies?
In a newborn born on time, the skin and skin attachments are fully developed. It fully protects the skin protective barrier feature. However, the dermis thickness is less than that of the adult. Collagen fibers are smaller and elastic fibers are not fully developed. Since the sweat glands are not fully developed, they cannot fully perform their duty to protect the body temperature. Therefore, newborn babies should be protected from cold. In the neonatal period, an oily substance called sebum is secreted from the skin. This substance decreases after the first month and reaches balance after 1 year. The skin is thin in preterm babies. Therefore, the protective feature of the skin is gained only 2-3 weeks after birth. The skin is thin in preterm babies. Premature babies have high water and heat loss through the skin. There are some skin diseases that occur in newborn babies.

Skin peeling in newborn babies
In the first week of life, peeling occurs in the form of a thin flaking on the skin. It is a completely physiological condition. Very rarely, this peeling can be very pronounced in normal children.

Punctulation (kutis marmaratus)
Especially as a result of exposure to cold environment, dark pink fluctuations occur on the skin of newborn babies and this situation causes the appearance of marble on the skin. It is an innocent situation that passes by itself. However, it may take a long time in babies with congenital hypothyroidism.

Toxic erythema of newborn baby
They occur in the middle of 1-2 days after birth and are pin-sized, white or yellowish, with water-filled swellings. It will recover on its own within a few days. It can be seen on the face and the whole body.

Miliaria
It is common in newborn babies and nursing infants. It occurs as a result of blockage of the ducts of the sweat glands. Besides sweat glands not maturing, the environment is very hot, thick clothes and febrile diseases trigger the formation of miliaria. The miliaria in babies can take three forms.

  • Many pinhead-sized red spots
  • Small water-filled formations on these red spots
  • Inflamed form of water-filled formations
Rashes are mostly seen in the neck and chest area. It can spread all over the body. They do not cause any complaints. No medication is required. It may be enough to regulate the ambient temperature and adjust the clothing thickness of your baby. It is useful to have frequent baths.

Newborn acne
In approximately 20% of newborn babies, acne can be observed on the cheeks and forehead in the first month of life, rarely on the rash spread on the chest and back. Neonatal acne can be attributed to the hyperactive androgenic hormones or adrenal glands passing through the mother. If the mother is using lithium or hydantoin, newborn acne may be encountered in the baby. Acne regresses spontaneously in a few months. Acne that occurs in 3 to 6 months after the newborn period is infantile acne.




Seborrheic dermatitis
It is generally seen in areas where sebaceous glands are dense. It is characterized by crusting and peeling. The reason is unknown. It is common on seen the scalp and behind the ears. It begins in the first months of life and disappears in the 4th and 5th months. In their heavy shapes, scales on the skin thicken and accumulate to form yellow lumps. There may be a bad smell. There may be a bad smell. Especially in chubby babies, there may be lesions on the folds of the skin, armpits, behind the ears and neck.
 
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